49. The ignorant have annoyed me on two occasions in my lifetime. First, when they spoke of things they did not know, at a time when I was equally ignorant; the second time when they kept silent in my presence [in the days when I had learnt something). In the same way they were always silent about matters which would have benefited them to speak about, and spoke about matters which brought them no benefit.
50. Scholars have brought me pleasure on two occasions in
my lifetime: first, they taught me when I was ignorant; the second time was when
they conversed with me after I had been taught.
51. One of the merits of religious knowledge and
asceticism in this world is that Almighty God does not put it with-in reach of
anyone except those who are worthy of it and deserve it. One of the
disadvantages of the great things of this world, wealth and fame, is that they
mostly fall to the lot of people who are unworthy of them and do not deserve
52. Anyone who is seeking after virtue should keep
com-pany with the virtuous and should take no companion with him on his way
except the noblest friend, one of those people who is sympathetic, charitable,
truthful, sociable, patient, trustworthy, loyal, magnanimous, pure in conscience
and a true friend.
53. Anyone who is seeking fame, fortune and pleasure will
keep company only with people who resemble mad dogs and sly foxes: they will
take for their travelling companions only people [inimical to his belief] who
are cunning and depraved in nature.
54. The usefulness of the knowledge [of good) in the
practice of virtue is considerable: anyone who knows the beauty of virtue will
practise it, though it may be rarely. Knowing the ugliness of vice, he will
avoid it, though it may be rarely. The man with knowledge of the good will
listen to soundly-based praise and desire it for himself. He will listen to talk
of evil and desire to avoid it. From this premise it necessarily follows that
knowledge has a part in every virtue, and ignorance has a part in every vice. A
man who has had no instruction in the knowledge [of good) will not practise
virtue unless he has an extremely pure nature, a virtuous constitution. It is
the particular state of the Prophets (peace and the blessings of God be upon
them!) for God has taught them virtue in its entirety, without them having
learnt it from men.
55. It is true that I have seen among the common people some who, by their excellent behaviour and morals, were not surpassed by any wise man, any scholarly, self-controlled man. But this is very rare. And I have seen men who have studied the different branches of knowledge, who have a good knowledge of the messages of the Prophets - peace be upon them - and the advice of the philosophers and who nevertheless surpass the most wicked in their bad behaviour, their depravity, both internal and external. These are the worst of all creatures. This is very common and I therefore perceive that these two [moral attitudes] are a favour which is granted or withheld by Allah the Almighty.