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Selected Tafsir of the Qur`an
  Tafsir of Surah an-Nazi`aat
Author: Various Authors (Ibn Kathir, Baghawi, Tabari etc.)
Source: Compiled by Dawud Burbank
Article ID : TFS020001  


Wan-Naazi’aati Gharqaa

Waa – Oath: "By …"
Naza’a – Pull/pluck: e.g., pulling the string of a bow
Gharqaa – To the utmost, forcefully

Allaah, the Most High, swears an oath in confirmation of the Resurrection.

  • As-Sa’dee said, "They are the Angels, those who forcefully pluck out the souls, and pull them out with great force until the soul comes out, and is then requited according to its deeds."

  • At-Tabaree and Ibn Katheer quote various meanings for what it refers to.

(i) The Angels who take out the souls.

(ii) Death

(iii) The stars which move from one horizon to another

(iv) The draw-string of the bow.

At-Tabaree says in summary that nothing from that is particularised, so it is left for all of that to enter into the oath.

Ibn Katheer says that what is correct and is held by most is that it means the Angels which pluck out the souls, and he quotes this as the saying of Ibn Mas’ood, Ibn ’Abbaas, Masrooq, Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, Aboo Saalih, Abud-Duhaa and as-Suddee. And Ibn Katheer says, "The Angels when they pluck out the soul of the descendants of Aadam. Some of them they pull out with difficulty, so they use the utmost force and others they take out with ease."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning the Angels which pluck out the souls of the Unbelievers from their bodies, just as an archer pulls at the bow-string, stretching it to the limit …"

Wan-Naashitaati Nashtaa

Nashataa: draw forth gently (like a bucket is pulled out of a well)

  • At-Tabaree again quotes different sayings and leaves it without restriction to one particular meaning.

Al-Baghawee said, "It is the Angels who gently take out the soul of the Believer, just as a tying-rope is loosened from the camel gently."

Ibn Katheer says that what is correct is that it refers to the Angels gently taking the soul of the Believers, and he attributes this to Ibn ’Abbaas.

Was-Saabihaati Sabhaa

Sabaha: swim along, glide along (swiftly) e.g., a swift horse

  • At-Tabaree mentions different sayings as to what is referred to: (i) Death, (ii) the stars which glide along their courses, (iii) ships, (iv) the Angels, and he does not restrict it to any one in particular.

  • Ibn Katheer quotes these sayings and attributes the saying that it refers to the Angels to Ibn Mas’ood and also to ’Alee, Mujaahid, Sa’eed ibn Jubayr and Aboo Saalih

  • As-Sa’dee said, "(The Angles) who pass to and from in the sky, according and descending."

  • Ibn al-Qayyim mentions (in at-Tibyaan fee Aqsaamil-Qur‘aan, pp. 132-) that most of the scholars hold that these aayahs (1-5) refer to the Angels. And he says regarding as-Saahibaat, "Those which fly through the air, passing to wherever they are ordered to proceed to, just as birds fly through the air."

  • Ash-Sahwkaanee also said that the majority from the Companions, Taabi’een and those after them hold that it is the Angels who are referred to in these Aayahs.

Fas-Saabiqaati Sabqaa

Sabaqa: to advance, precede, precede others in a race

  • Ibn Katheer said, "It is related from ’Alee, Masrooq, Mujaahid, Aboo Saalih and al-Hasan al-Basree that it means the Angels." Al-Hasan said, "They preceded in eemaan and affirmation."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Mujaahid said, ‘They are the Angels. They preceded the son of Aadam in good and righteous action.’ Maqaatil said, ‘They are the Angels they hasten with the souls of the Believers to Paradise …’"

  • As-Sa’dee said, "(They precede others) carrying out Allaah’s commands, and they precede and outstrip the devils in conveying the Revelation to the Messengers of Allaah, so that they should not be able to take by stealth." Ash-Shawkaanee quotes this last saying as being one saying of Mujaahid and Masrooq.

Fal-Mudabiraati Amraa

  • At-Tabaree said, "The Angles who carry out whatever orders of Allaah they are commanded". Qataadah said, "They are the Angels."

  • Ibn Katheer mentions this as the saying of ’Alee, Mujaahid, ’Ataa‘, Aboo Saalih, al-Hasan, Qataadah, ar-Rabee’ ibn Anas and as-Suddee. He mentions also that they did not differ about this.

  • As-Sa’dee, "The Angels whom Allaah has given the task of carrying out many of the affairs of the world, of the heaven and earth below. With regard to rain, growth of plants, winds, oceans, embryos, animals, Paradise and Hellfire and so on."

Yawma Tarjufur-Raajifah

Rajafa: to be in violent motion, shake violently (the earth in an earthquake)

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says:

The Day when the Earth and mountains quake.

For the first blast:

Tatba’uhar-Raadifah

It is followed by another coming after it which is the second blast following on from the first, for the Ressurrection on the Day of Resurrection." ’Alee, Ibn ’Abbaas, "The first blast."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning the first blast, at which everything will quake and be in violent commotion, and at which all of the creation will die."

Tatba’uhar-Raadifah

  • At-Tabaree said, "The second blast." Al-Hasan said, "It is two blasts. As for the first, then it will cause the death of the living. As for the second, then at it life will be given to the dead." Then al-Hasan recited:

And the trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allaah wills. Then it will be blown a second time and behold, they will be standing, looking on (waiting).

  • Ibn Katheer mentions a hadeeth of Ubayy ibn Ka’b that Allaah’s Messenger, sallallaahu ’alaihi wa salaam, would come out after two-thirds of the night had passed and say, "O People! Remember Allaah! Remember Allaah! The ‘Raajifah’ comes, followed by the ‘Raadifah.’ Death has come with whatever it holds. Death has come with whatever it holds." Ubayy said, "I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! I send salaat upon you a great deal, so how much of my supplications should I make for you?" He said, "Whatever you wish." I said, "A quarter?" He said, "Whatever you wish, and if you increase then it is better for you." I said, "Then a half?" He said, "Whatever you wish, and if you increase then it is better." I said, "Then two thirds?" He said, "Whatever you wish, and if you increase then it is better." I said, "Shall I make all of my supplication for you?" He said, "Then all of your concerns would be taken care of, and your sins forgiven." Declared hasan by Shaikh al-Albaanee, see Saheehut-Tirmidhee, no. 1999.

And concerning the two blowings of the Horn see the hadeeth of Aboo Hurairah, al-Bukhaaree, transl. 6/429, no. 457.

Quloob Yawma‘idhin Waajifah

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, ‘The heart of His creation on that day will be terrified due to the severe and terrifying occurrence." ’Alee, Ibn ’Abbaas said, "Meaning: fearful, terrified." Qataadah said, "Terrified because of what they see that Day."

Absaaruhaa Khaashi`ah

  • At-Tabaree says, "The gaze of those people will be humbled/lowered due to the disasters and grief, and sorrow, due to fear and terror of what has come upon them, and the horrors of that day."

  • ’Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Zayd (ibn Aslam) said, "Humbled due to the humiliation that has come upon them." Qataadah said, "Humbled."

  • Ash-Sahwkaanee mentions, "’Ataa‘ said, ‘Meaning: the sight of those who died upon other than Islaam.’ And this is shown by the context which refers to the deniers of the Resurrection."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Meaning: humbled and humiliated. Their hearts are possessed by fear and preoccupied by distress. They are overcome by regret and seized by grief."

Yaqooloona A‘inna la-Mardoodoona fil-Haafirah

Hafara: he dug or cleard it (e.g., the earth or a well)

Haafirah: original state, beginning

  • At-Tabaree said, "These mushriks of Quraysh who denied the Resurrection, when it is said to them that they will be raised up after death, say, ‘Are we to be returned to our original state which we were upon before dying and be alive again as we were before we perished and died.’ And it is from their saying, ‘Raja’a fulaan ’alaa haarifatihi,’ when a person returned from whence he came.

(i) Ibn ’Abbaas said, "(Al-Haafirah said), ‘Life.’" Qataadah said, "I.e., brought back, created anew."

(ii) Al-Haafirah means the earth in which their graves (hufrah) are dug. Mujaahid said, "Al-Haafirah: ‘The earth, we are to be raised up on it and created anew, and resurrected."

(iii) Ibn Zayd (’Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam), "Al-Haafirah: ‘The Fire.’ He said, ‘How many names it has. It is: An-Naar, al-Jaheem, Saqar, Jahannam, al-Haawiyah, al-Haaqirah, Ladhaa and al-Hutamah."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "They say - i.e., those in this world who deny the Resurrection, out of mockery and denial of the Resurrection, out of mockery and denial of the Resurrection - ‘Shall be returned back after death to our original form?!’ This is a question by which is meant a denial and in the form of utmost amazement deeming it to be absurd."

A‘idhaa Kunnaa ’Idhaaman-Nakhirah

At-Tabaree said, "Nakhirah: worn out/decayed. Mujaahid said, ‘Crumbled (bones).’ Qataadah said, ‘Worn out, decayed.’

Ash-Shawkaanee said, "That is: decayed and crumbled (bones) … so this is an extra emphasis upon their denial of the Resurrection, meaning, ‘Shall we after we have become crumbled bones, then be brought back and resurrected, when that is the furthest thing my life."

Qaaloo tilka idhan Karratan Khaasirah

At-Tabaree said, "He, the Majestic, says about the saying of the deniers of the Resurrection, they say, ‘That …’ meaning this resurrection to life after death, ‘… would be a return that would be a loss.’ Qataadah said, ‘Meaning: a return that would be a loss.’ Ibn Zaid (ibn Aslam) said, ‘And what loss can be greater than it. They are returned to life and then go to the Fire. So it is an evil return.’"

Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning: if we were returned after death, then we would be losers due to what we would suffer after death."

Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning: a return involving loss which would come upon its people. The meaning of it is that they said, ‘If we were to be brought back after death we would certainly be losers due to that which Muhammad says we would suffer. And it is said that, Khasirah, means ‘false,’ i.e., it is something that will not be, this was said by al-Hasan and others. Ar-Rabee’ ibn Anas said, ‘It would be a loss doe those who denied it.’ Qataadah and Muhammad ibn Ka’b said, ‘Meaning: if we were brought back after death we will be in loss due to the Fire,’ and they said this because they had been promised the Fire.’"

Fa‘innamaa Hiyaa Zajratun Waahidah

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says,’It is just a single blast, and the Horn is blown once, and that is the Zajarah.’ Mujaahid said, ‘A blast.’ Ibn Zayd said, ‘A blast upon the horn (as-Soor),’"

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning: the final blast … which they will hear."

  • Ibn Katheer siad, "So it will just be a command from Allaah, which will not be repeated or further emphasised, and the people will be standing and looking on. It is that Allaah, the Most High, will order Israafeel who will blow the Horn for the Resurrection, and that earlier and later people will be standing up before the Lord, the Mighty and Majestic."

Fa‘idhaa hum Bis-Saahirah

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, ‘Then those who denied the Resurrection, who found it incredible that Allaah would bring them to life after their death, and they denied it, then they would be, ‘Bis-Saahirah,’ meaning upon the face of the earth, and the Arabs call desert ground and the face of the earth Saahirah.

Ibn ’Abbaas said, ‘Upon the earth.’ ’Ikrimah said, ‘Then they are upon the face of the earth.’ Mujaahid said, ‘A flat place.’ Qataadah said, ‘Then they will be upon the earth, after being within it.’"

Hal ataaka hadeethu Moosaa Idh Naadaahu Rabbuhoo Bil-waadil-Muqaddasi Tuwaa

At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says to His Prophet Muhammad, sallallaahu ’alaihi wa salaam, ‘Has there come to you, O Muhamad, the news of Moosaa ibn ’Imraan, and have you heard the news of what occurred when his Lord called him in the purified and blessed valley … of (Tuwaa).

And the people of explanation differ about His saying, ‘Tuwaa.’ So some say it is the name of a valley. Mujaahid said, ‘Tuwaa is the name of the valley.’

Ibn Katheer said, "He, the Most High, informs His Messenger Muhammad. sallallaahu ’alaihi wa salaam, about His slave and His Messenger Moosaa, ’alaihis-salaam, that he sent him as a Messenger to the Pharoah and Allaah asked him with miracles, yet despite this he (i.e., Pharoah) continued in his unbelief and transgression, until Allaah, with full power and full might, seized and punished him, and the end of those who oppose you and deny what you come with will be likewise.

"Hal ataaka hadeethu Moosaa," meaning, ‘Have you heard of his news?’ "Idh naadaa rabbahu …" meaning, ‘He spoke to him, calling out.’ "Bil-waadil-muqaddas …" meaning ‘Purified.’ "Tuwaa," and that is the name of the valley in the correct saying, as has preceded in Soorah Taa Haa (aayahs 9 onwards).

As-Sa’dee said, "’Hal ataaka hadeethu Moosaa,’ this is a question about a very great matter, which had certainly occurred. Meaning, ‘Has the news reached you of when his Lord called him in the purified valley of Tuwaa, which is the place where Allaah spoke to him, and blessed him with Messengership and sent him with Revelation, and chose him."

Ash-Shawkaanee said, "The sentence, ‘Hal ataaka hadeethu Moosaa,’ comes as a consolation for Allaah’s Messenger, sallallaahu ’alaihi wa sallam, for the denail of his people and that the same will befall those who were before them and were stronger than them."

Idhhab ilaa Fir’awna innhu Taghaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, "Moosaa wsa called to by his Lord, ‘Go to Pharoah, he has transgressed and gone beyond limits in his transgression and haughty rejection of his Lord."

  • As-Sadee said, "I.e., and so forbid him from his transgression, his shrik and his disobedience, with a mild word, and a gentle form of address."

Faqul-Hallaka ‘ilaa an-Tazakkaa

At-Tabaree said, "He says, ‘And say to him, ‘Would you purify yourself from the pollution of shirk, and believe in your Lord?’’ Ibn Zayd said, "Would you accept Islaam." He said, "And at-Tazakkee (purification of onesself) wherever it occurs in the Qur‘aan means Islaam." He then recited Taa Haa (20), aayah: 76, ’Abasa (80), aayah 3 and 7."

Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, ‘Say to him, ‘Would you accept to follow a way and a path through which you will become purified, and accept Islaam and be obedient.’’"

As-Sa’dee said, "Meaning, ‘Would you accept a praiseworthy attribute, a fine quality, which people of wisdom strive to attain and that is that you purify yourself from the pollution of kufr and transgression, and turn to eemaan and righteous action."

Ibn al-Qayyim said in At-Tibyaan fee Aqsaamil-Qur‘aan (pp. 132-141), "In this address there are a number of examples of gentleness in address and mildness in speech:

Firstly: The speech was presented in the form of an offer, and not given in the form of a command and a binding demand. It is like the saying of Ibraaheem to his noble guests, "Will you not eat?" (Soorah adh-Dhaariyaat, 17) and he did not say, "Eat!"

Secondly: His saying, "Ilaa an-Tazakkaa" that you should purify yourself, and it means: growth, purification, blessing and increase. So he presented to him a matter which every person with intellect would accept, and no one except an ignorant fool would reject this.

Thirdly: His saying, "Tazakkaa" that you should purify yourself, and he did not say, "I will purify you." So he attributed the purification to him and this is the way in which the sovereigns are addressed.

Fourthly: His saying, "Wa Ahdiyaka" meaning, "I should be a guide for you and one in front of you to show you the way." So he attributed the state of guiding to himself and the purification to the one he was speaking to you. Meaning, "I will be a guide showing you the way so that you can purify yourself." So it is just as you would say to a man, "Would you like that I should show you a treasure, so you may take from it what you wish?" And this is better than saying, "I will give you."

Fifthly: His saying, "Ilaa rabbikaa" "To your Lord," since this necessitates acceptance of what it indicates, which is that he calls him and connects him to his Lord, and his Originator and his Creator Who brought him into existence, and Who bestowed His blessings upon him, as an unborn foetus, and as a child, and as a grown man, and He granted kingship to him. So it is a type of address containing an appeal and an imperative requirement. Just as you would say to one who abandoned obedience to his master, "Will you not obey your master and your owner?" And as you would say to a boy, "Will you not obey your father who has brought you up?"

Sixthly: His saying, "Fa-takhsaa" so that you should fear, i.e., if I guide you to Him, and you come to know Him – then you will fear Him, since one who knows Allaah will fear Him. But one who does not know Him will not fear Him. So fear of Him, the Most High, accompanies knwoedge of Him, and a persons fear of Him will be in accordance with the degree of knowledge of Him.

Seventhly: That in his saying, "Hal-laka" "Would you …" (lit., "Is it for you …"), contains a subtle point of benefit, which is: that the meaning is do you have a need in that, and it is known that every person with intellect would hasten to accept that since the one who calls to something will call to his own need and benefit, not to the benefit of the one he is calling. So it is as if he were saying, "It is you that has this need and you are the one who is to be purified, and I will be a guide for you and lead you to the greatest of all things beneficial for you. But he responded to this with kufr, obstinate rejection and the claim that he was the Lord of all creation …"

Wa-Ahdiyaka Ilaa Rabbika fa-Takhsha

At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says to His Prophet Moosaa, ‘Say to Pharoah, ‘Would you like that I should direct you to that which will cause your Lord to be pleased with you. That being the true religion, so that you may fear, meaning you may due to fear of His punishment perform the obligatory duties He made binding upon you and avoid whatever sins He has forbidden you from."

Al-Bghawee said, "Meaning, ‘I call you to the worship of your Lord and to singling Him out with tawheed, and that you should fear His punishment.’"

Ibn Katheer said, "Fa-takhshaa" meaning, ‘So that your heart should become humble to Him, and obedient and fearful after having been hard and filthy and far removed from good."

Fa-Araahul-Aayatul-Kubraa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says that Moosaa showed Pharoah the greatest sign, meaning the greatest proof that he was a Messenger of Allaah, sent by Him to him. This sign was the hand of Moosaa, which when he put it out (shone) brightly for those who saw it. And his staff which visibly turned into his snake. Mujaahid said "His staff and his hand." Qataadah said, "His staff and his hand."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning Moosaa showed him, along with his true call a strong evidence and clear proof, showing the truth of what he brought from Allaah."

Fa-Kadhhab-wa-’-Asaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "So Pharaoh denied by rejecting the miraculous signs which Moosaa brought to him, and he disobeyed him with regard to the command for him, for him to obey and fear his Lord."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, so he denied the truth and contradicted the order for him to be obedient. So his heart disbelieved and did not comply with Moosaa, inwardly or outwardly. Then his knowledge that what Moosaa came with was the truth did not mean that he had eemaan in it, since knowledge – recognition – is knowledge of the heart, whereas eemaan is action and submission and compliance to the truth."

Thumma Adbara Yas-’aa

  • At-Tabaree said, "Then he turned away from the obedience to his Lord that Moosaa called him to, and away from fearing him and worshipping him alone – and he strove in doing actions of disobedience to Allaah, which would bring His Anger upon him. Mujaahid said, ‘He acted corruptly.’"

  • Al-Baghawee said, "He turned away from eemaan and performed corruption upon the earth."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, he opposed the truth with falsehood, which was that he gathered the sorcerers to counter the clear miracles that Moosaa, ’alaihis-salaam, came with."

  • Sa’dee said, "Meaning, he strove hard in opposing and fighting the truth."

Fa-hashara Fa naadaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "So he gathered his people and his followers and called to them, saying, "I am you Lord, the Most High, such that every lord is lesser than me—and the stupid fool lied. Ibn Zaid said, ‘He shouted out and gathered his people and called them. So when they gathered, he said, ‘I am your Lord, the Most High.’ So Allaah took him and punished him for the first and latter of his saying."

Fa-Qaalaa Ana Rabbukumul-A’laa

  • At-Tabaree said, "So he gathered his people and his followers and called out to them, saying, ‘I am the Lord, such that every lord is lesser than me,’—and the stupid fool lied."

Fa-Akhadhullaahu Nakaalal-Aakhirati wal-Oolaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "Fa-akhadhahullaahu (means), So Allaah punished him. Nakaalal-Aakhirati wal-Oolaa (means), He punished him because of the last of his two sayings, which was his saying that, ‘I am your Highest Lord.’ And the first of his sayings, ‘I know of no one else for you to worship besides me.’ … reports this from Mujaahid and others and that the two sayings were separated by forty years … others said, rather what is meant by that is the punishment of this world and the hereafter, said by Hasan and Qataadah.

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Al-Hasan and Qataadah said, ‘Allaah gave him an exemplary punishment in this world and the hereafter, meaning, drowning in this world and a fire in the hereafter. And Mujaahid and a group of the people of tafseer said, "What is meant by the latter and the earlier is the two sayings of Pharaoh."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "(Meaning), Allaah chastised him with a punishment that made an example and a lesson of him, for the like of him from the transgressors in the world … and this is what is cvorrect with regard to what is meant in the aayah, ‘Nakaalal-aakhirati wal-Oolaa’ that it means, in the world and the Hereafter. And it is said that what is meant is his two sayings, the first and the last; and it is said, his kufr and his disobedience. And what is correct about which there is no doubt is the first."

Inna fee Dhaalika La-’Ibratan Li-Mayyakhshaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, that in the punishment that Allaah brought to Pharaoh in this world, and His punishing him with the punishment of the first and the last – there is an admonition and a lesson for anyone who fears Allaah and fears His punishment.."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Since the one who fears Allaah, he is the one who benefits from the signs and the lessons, then he knows that whoever is haughty and disobendent, and challenges the Highest Sovereign, will be punished by Him in this world and the Hereafter. As for the one whose heart is such that fear of Allaah has departed from it, then even if every sign came to him, he would not believe it."

A-Antum Ashaddu Khalqan Amis-Samaa‘ Banaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, said to those deniers of the Resurrection from Quraysh, who said, ‘A-‘idhahh kunna idhaaman nakhirah, Qaaloo, tilka idhjan karratun khaasirah.’ (11-12), ‘Are you, O People, harder to create, or the heavens which your Lord created? So for Him who built the heavens and made that a ceiling for you, then it is easy for Him to create you and create the like of you. And to give you life after your death, and creating you after your death is not harder than the creating of the heavens. Banaahaa: He raised it up, and so made it a ceiling for the earth."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Then he addressed the deniers of the Resurrection, saying, ‘A-antum ashaddu khalqan amis-Samaa,’ meaning, ‘Is creating you after death harder in your view and in your estimation or (creating) the heavens?’ and they are both the same in the power and ability of Allaah."

  • Ash-Shawkaanee said, "And the address was to the unbelievers of Makkah, and what is meant by it is a rebuke and censure of them, since the one who is able to create the heavens which are tremendous in size, and contain amazing creations, and wonderful proofs of His power – which clearly show those who see them: who can he be unable to bring those bodies which He has caused to die back to life, when it was He who created them in the first place?"

Rafa’a Samkahaa fa-Sawwaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says He made the Heavens evenly, such that one part does not stand out higher than the rest, not any part lower than the rest – but it is even in its elevation and its expansion. Qataadah said, ‘He raised it up and made it even.’ Mujaahid said, ‘He raised it up, without any pillar.’"

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Fa-Sawwaahaa: means without any gaps or splits."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "That is, He made it high, long – lasting, even and adorned with stars in the dark night."

Wa Aghtashaa Lailahaa wa Akhraja Duhaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "Wa aghtashaa lailahaa: He, the Most High, says that He made the night of the heavens dark. So He attributed the night to the heavens since the night comes with the setting of the sun, and its setting and rising takes place in the heavens – so it is attributed to them. Ibn ’Abbaas said, ‘He made it dark, (i.e., Aghtashaa) = (Adh-lamaa).’ And Mujaahid said the same. Qataadah, Ibn Zaid, Ad-Dahhaak and ’Ikrimah …"

Wa Akhraja Duhaahaa: He says He brought out its light, meaning, He manifested its day and gave light to it. And Mujaahid sais, ‘He gave light to it,’ and Qataadah said, ‘He caused its light to shine.’

  • Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning, He manifested its bright day with the light of the sun, and He referred to the day as the duhaa (forenoon), since that is the most excellent and the best of its hours."

Wal-Arda Ba’da dhaalika Dahaahaa

  • At-Tabaree quotes to sayings. (i) That it means that Allaah created the earth, then created the heavens, then spread out whatever is upon the earth. (ii) That it means that Allaah created the earth and spread out whatever is upon it, then created the heavens.

Then at-Tabaree preferred the first saying, as did Ibn Katheer, ash-Shawkaanee and as-Sa’dee. He says, "Since what is well-known is that ba’da (after) is the opposite in meaning to qabl (before)." Ibn ’Abbaas said, "That He mentioned that He created the earth before the heavens, then mentioned the heavens before the earth – and that is because Allaah created the earth along with its provisions, but did not spread that out, before the heavens. Then He ascended over the Heavens and made them seven heavens. He then spread out the earth over that." Qataadah and Sufyaam both said regarding Dahaahaa, "He spread it out." Ibn Zaid said, "He planted and split it."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "He, the Most High, explained it with His saying (i.e., aayah 31) (He produced its water and plants), and it has preceded in Soorah Haa Meem as-Sajdah that the earth was created before the creation of the heavens. However, it was spread out after the creation of the heavens, meaning that He brought out of it the provision that was within it. This is what Ibn ’Abbaas and others meant, and was the preferred view of Ibn Jareer. And Ibn Abee Haatim narrated … from Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, from Ibn ’Abbaas (regarding dahaahaa, that he said), "Its spreading (dahy) is that He brought out of it its water and plants, and split rivers from it, and put mountains, sands, paths and chains of hills upon it."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Wal-Ardaa ba’da dhaalika: i.e., after the creation of the heavens dahaahaa: He placed in it those things of benefit."

Akhraja minhaa Maa‘ahaa wa Mar’ahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He caused rivers to flow in it and caused its plants to grow."

  • Ibn Katheer (see previous aayah )

  • Ash-Sahwkaanee said, "Meaning, He caused rivers, oceans and springs to flow upon the earth. Wa mar’aahaa, i.e., the plants which (animals) graze upon, and this sentence is either an explanation of dahaahaa (spreading out), since it cannot be suitable for habitation by merely being spread out. Rather, that which is necessary for life, from food and drink must also be provided, or it is an explanation of its state."

Wal-Jibaala Arsaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He says, ‘And He fixed the mountains firmly upon it. Qataadah, ‘Meaning, He firmly fixed them so that it should not shake with the people upon it.’"

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, ‘He caused them to be settled, firmly fixed and sound in their places, and He is the All-Wise, the All-Knowing, the One Most Kind and merciful to His creation."

 

Mataa’al-Laakum wali-’An’aamikum

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, means that He created these things, and brought out from the earth water and pasture, as a benefit, and something to enjoy for a certain time period."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, ‘He laid out the earth, caused its spring to gush out, brought out its hidden treasures, caused its rivers to flow, brought out its crops, trees and fruits, and firmly fixed its mountains, so that they with the people upon it should stable. He did all of this for it to be of benefit to His creation and for the beasts which they need for food and to ride upon. This is for the length of time which they have need of this in this world, until the time period is completed and come to an end."

Fa-idhaa Jaa‘atitaammatul-Kubraa

Taammah: lang. ‘A great calamity

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, ‘So when that event comes which is kmore terrible than all other events, such that it submerges everything else with its terrors.’ And it is said that it is one of the names of the Day of Resurrection. ’Alee, Ibn ’Abbaas said, ‘It is from the names of the Day of Resurrection. Allaah has mentioned it as being something very great and has warned His servants about it.’"

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning, ‘When the second blast occurs, at which the Resurrection will take place. And the Day of Resurrection is called Taammah because it drowns out all othere terrors and overcomes them. And at-Taammah with the ’Arabs means a disaster that cannot be survived."

Yawma Yatadhakarul-Insaana Maa Sa’aa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He says, ‘When the Overwhelming Calamity comes about, then on that day mankind will remember the good and the evil deeds that they did in this world. And that is his striving (sa’y)."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Maa sa’aa: the good and the evil that he did in this world."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, at that time the son of Aadam will remember all of his deeds, the good and the evil."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "So who was a doer of good will receive that which is good, and whoever was a doer of evil can blame no one but himself."

Wa Burrazatil-Jaheemu limay-Yaraa

  • At-Tabaree said, "And Hell-fire will be made manifest, and it is Allaah’s Fire, for those who are looking onto see."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Muqaatil said, ‘The cover will be removed from it, so that the creation will be looking at it.’"

  • Ash-Shawkaanee said, "It will be manifested such that it is not hidden from anyone."

Fa-ammaa man Taghaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, ‘So as for he who insolently rejects his Lord, disobeys Him and haughtily refuses to worship Him.’ Mujaahid said, ‘Taghaa: disobeys Him.’"

  • Al-Baghawee said, "(Transgresses) with his Unbelief."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, he rebels and is insolent."

  • Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning, he who transgresses with kufr and sins."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Meaning, he who goes beyond the limits by insolently committing the major sins, and by not restricting himself to the limits laid down by Allaah."

Wa-Athaaral-Hayaatad-Dunyaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "And prefers the enjoyment of this world to then honour of the Hereafter and whatever Allaah has prepared in it for His Awliyaa (those who love and obey Him). But he works and strives for this world and abandons working for the Hereafter."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, he gives precedence to it."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "(Preferring it) over the Hereafter. So he strives for it, and his time is occupied with it and the desires that are from it, and he forgets the Hereafter and action for it."

Fa-Innal-Jaheema Hiyal-Ma‘waa

At-Tabaree said, "He says, ‘So Allaah’s Fire which is called al-Jaheem (the Blazing Fire) is his abode and dwelling place and the place where he will end up on the Day of Resurrection"

Wa-ammaa man khaafa Maqaama Rabbihee Wa-Nannafsa ’anil-Hawaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He says, ‘As for he who fears his Lord’s questioning him when he stands before Him on the Day of Resurrection, so therefore he has taqwaa for Him by doing whatever He has made obligatory and avoiding sinning against Him. And he prevents his soul from desires, meaning, and he prevents his soul from whatever it desires that Allaah hates and is not pleasing to Him. So He prevents it from that and goes against his desires in favour of what his Lord has commanded him with."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "From the forbidden things which it desires. Muqaatil said, ‘It is the man who thinks of committing a sin but he remembers his having to stand to give account, so he abandins it.’"

Fa-innal-Jannata Hiyal-Ma‘waa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He says, ‘Then Paradise is his dwelling place and abode on the Day of Resurrection.’"

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Paradise, which includes everything that is good, every delight and every pleasure, (is the abode) for the one who has this as his characteristic."

Yas‘aloonaka ’anis-Saa’ati, Ayyaana Mursaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "Allaah, the Most High, says to His Prophet Muhammad, sallallaahu ’alaihi wa salaam, ‘Those deniers of the Resurrection ask you, O Muhammad, about the Last Hour, when the dead will be raised from their graves, (they ask), ‘What is the tie of its establishment and appearance?’’"

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Meaning, the obstinate rejectors of the Resurrection ask you, ‘When will the Last Hour come about?’ So Allaah answered them with His saying:

Fee ma Anta min Dhikraahaa

Fee ma Anta min Dhikraahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "Allaah says to His Prophet, ‘What have you to do with the Last Hour and seeking to know about that matter?’ And it is mentioned that Allaah’s Messenger, sallallaahu ’alaihi wa salaam, used to frequently mention the Last Hour, until this aayah was sent down.

Ya’qoob ibn Ibraaheem narrated to me saying: Sufyaan ibn ’Uyaynah narrated to us: from az-Zuhree: from ’Urwah: from ’Aa‘ishah who said, "The Prophet, sallallaahu ’alaihi wa sallaam, did not cease asking about the matter of the Last Hour, until there was sent down:

Fee ma Anta min Dhikraahaa, Ilaa Rabbika Muntahaahaa

Mujaahid said regarding, ‘Fee ma Anta min Dhikraahaa’, "The Last Hour."

  • Al-Baghawee said, "’You have no share of the knowledge and mention of that.’ Meaning, ‘You do not know it.’

  • Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning, you have no share of the knowledge and mention of that, rather it is known only to Allaah, the One free from all imperfections. And this is a rebuttal and rejection of the question of the mushriks about that, meaning, ‘What share of that is there for you – so that they should ask you about it when you do not know it?"

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Meaning, what benefit would there be for you or them for it to be mentioned, and for you to know the time of its coming? So there is no benefit in that. Therefore, since the peoples knowing when the Last Hour is contains no benefit for them in their Religion or their worldly life. Rather the benefit is in its being hidden from them. So that is kept hidden from all of the creation, and He alone has knowledge of it."

Ilaa Rabbika Muntahaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He says, ‘Knowledge of it belongs to Him, that is knowledge of the Last Hour is for Him, no one but Him knows the time of its establishment.’"

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, knowledge of it is not for you or for anyone in the creation, rather its knowledge is with Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So He alone knows its specific time. Therefore when Jibreel asked Allaah’s Messenger, sallallaahu ’alaihi wa salaam, about the time of the Last Hour he replied, "The one who is asked about it does not know any better than the one asking."

Innamaa Anta Mundhiru May-Yakhshaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says to Muhammad, ‘You are juts My Messenger sent to warn of the Last Hour – (to warn) those who fear Allaah’s punishment on that day for their sins. But you are not given the task of knowing the time for its establishment. So leave that which you have not been given as a task, and act upon that which you have been commanded with, as regards warning those you have been ordered to warn.’"

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning, Your warning will only benefit those who fear it."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, I have only sent you to alert and warn the people about Allaah’s punishment. So whoever fears Allaah, and fears his having to stand in front of Him and what He has threatened, then such a one will follow you and so be successful and succeed. But loss and disaster will be for those who deny and oppose you,

  • Ash-Shawkaanee said, "You are to warn those who fear establishment of the Last Hour. That is you duty, and it is not a duty upon you that you should inform of the time of the establishment of the Last Hour and so on, from those things the knowledge of which Allaah has kept to Himself." And He particularises the mention of the warning to those who fear since they are the ones who benefit from the warning. Even though he was a warner to every Muslim and kaafir."

  • As-Sa’dee said, "Meaning, your warning will benefit those who fear the coming of the Last Hour, and who fear standing in front of Allaah. So they are the ones who are not interested except in preparing for it and in action for it. As for those who do not believe in it, then they are not to be taken notice of, nor of their useless questions. Since they are questions based upon denial and obstinate rejection. So when this is the case, answering that would be frivolity, and the Most Just of all judges is far removed from that."

Ka-annahum Yawma Yarawnahaa Lam Yalbithoo Illaa ’Ashiyyatan Aw Duhaahaa

  • At-Tabaree said, "He, the Majestic, says, ‘It will be when those who reject the Last Hour, see the Hour established, along with its great terrors, it will be as if they had not remained in the world except for an afternoon, or the morning of that afternoon/evening … so the (duhaa) means the start of the day-time, and the (’ashiyy) means the end of the day-time. So likewise His saying, Illaa ’ashiyyatan aw duhaahaa, means, the end of a day and its first part. Qataadah said, ‘This will be how the people view the time of the world when they see the Hereafter.’"

  • Al-Baghawee said, "Ka‘annahum: (i.e., it will be as if they) meaning the disbelievers of Quraysh, when they see the Day of Resurrection have not remained in the world, and it is said: in their graves, Illaa ’ashiyyatan aw duhaahaa."

  • Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, when they arise from their graves for the gathering, they will consider that their life-time in the world had been very little, as if it had been the afternoon/evening of a day or its morning."


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