|Selected Tafsir of the Qur`an|
Tafsir of Surah an-Nazi`aat|
|Author: Various Authors (Ibn Kathir, Baghawi, Tabari etc.)|
|Source: Compiled by Dawud Burbank|
|Article ID : TFS020001 |
Waa Oath: "By
Nazaa Pull/pluck: e.g., pulling the
string of a bow
Gharqaa To the utmost, forcefully
Allaah, the Most High, swears an oath in confirmation of the
- As-Sadee said, "They are the Angels, those who forcefully
pluck out the souls, and pull them out with great force until the soul comes
out, and is then requited according to its deeds."
- At-Tabaree and Ibn Katheer quote various meanings for what it refers
(i) The Angels who
take out the souls.
(iii) The stars which move from one horizon to another
(iv) The draw-string of the bow.
At-Tabaree says in summary that nothing from that is
particularised, so it is left for all of that to enter into the oath.
Ibn Katheer says that what is correct and is held by most is
that it means the Angels which pluck out the souls, and he quotes this as the
saying of Ibn Masood, Ibn Abbaas, Masrooq, Saeed ibn
Jubayr, Aboo Saalih, Abud-Duhaa and as-Suddee. And Ibn Katheer says, "The
Angels when they pluck out the soul of the descendants of Aadam. Some of them
they pull out with difficulty, so they use the utmost force and others they take
out with ease."
- Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning the Angels which pluck out the souls of
the Unbelievers from their bodies, just as an archer pulls at the
bow-string, stretching it to the limit
Nashataa: draw forth gently (like a
bucket is pulled out of a well)
- At-Tabaree again quotes different sayings and leaves it without restriction
to one particular meaning.
Al-Baghawee said, "It is the Angels who gently take out the soul of the
Believer, just as a tying-rope is loosened from the camel gently."
Ibn Katheer says that what is correct is that it refers to the
Angels gently taking the soul of the Believers, and he attributes this to Ibn
Sabaha: swim along, glide along
(swiftly) e.g., a swift horse
- At-Tabaree mentions different sayings as to what is referred to: (i)
Death, (ii) the stars which glide along their courses, (iii) ships, (iv) the
Angels, and he does not restrict it to any one in particular.
- Ibn Katheer quotes these sayings and attributes the saying that it
refers to the Angels to Ibn Masood and also to Alee, Mujaahid,
Saeed ibn Jubayr and Aboo Saalih
- As-Sadee said, "(The Angles) who pass to and from in the
sky, according and descending."
- Ibn al-Qayyim mentions (in at-Tibyaan fee Aqsaamil-Quraan,
pp. 132-) that most of the scholars hold that these aayahs (1-5)
refer to the Angels. And he says regarding as-Saahibaat, "Those
which fly through the air, passing to wherever they are ordered to proceed
to, just as birds fly through the air."
- Ash-Sahwkaanee also said that the majority from the Companions,
Taabieen and those after them hold that it is the Angels who
are referred to in these Aayahs.
Sabaqa: to advance, precede, precede
others in a race
- Ibn Katheer said, "It is related from Alee, Masrooq,
Mujaahid, Aboo Saalih and al-Hasan al-Basree that it means the Angels."
Al-Hasan said, "They preceded in eemaan and
- Al-Baghawee said, "Mujaahid said, They are the Angels. They
preceded the son of Aadam in good and righteous action. Maqaatil
said, They are the Angels they hasten with the souls of the Believers
- As-Sadee said, "(They precede others) carrying out
Allaahs commands, and they precede and outstrip the devils in
conveying the Revelation to the Messengers of Allaah, so that they should
not be able to take by stealth." Ash-Shawkaanee quotes this last saying
as being one saying of Mujaahid and Masrooq.
- At-Tabaree said, "The Angles who carry out whatever orders of
Allaah they are commanded". Qataadah said, "They are the
- Ibn Katheer mentions this as the saying of Alee, Mujaahid,
Ataa, Aboo Saalih, al-Hasan, Qataadah, ar-Rabee ibn
Anas and as-Suddee. He mentions also that they did not differ about
- As-Sadee, "The Angels whom Allaah has given the task of
carrying out many of the affairs of the world, of the heaven and earth
below. With regard to rain, growth of plants, winds, oceans, embryos,
animals, Paradise and Hellfire and so on."
Rajafa: to be in violent motion, shake violently (the earth
in an earthquake)
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says:
The Day when the Earth and mountains quake.
For the first blast:
It is followed by another coming after it which is the second
blast following on from the first, for the Ressurrection on the Day of
Resurrection." Alee, Ibn Abbaas, "The first
- Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning the first blast, at which everything
will quake and be in violent commotion, and at which all of the creation
- At-Tabaree said, "The second blast." Al-Hasan said, "It
is two blasts. As for the first, then it will cause the death of the living.
As for the second, then at it life will be given to the dead." Then
And the trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens
and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allaah wills. Then
it will be blown a second time and behold, they will be standing, looking on
- Ibn Katheer mentions a hadeeth of Ubayy ibn Kab that
Allaahs Messenger, sallallaahu alaihi wa salaam, would
come out after two-thirds of the night had passed and say, "O
People! Remember Allaah! Remember Allaah! The Raajifah comes,
followed by the Raadifah. Death has come with whatever it
holds. Death has come with whatever it holds." Ubayy said, "I
said, O Messenger of Allaah! I send salaat upon you a great
deal, so how much of my supplications should I make for you?" He said,
"Whatever you wish." I said, "A quarter?" He
said, "Whatever you wish, and if you increase then it is better for
you." I said, "Then a half?" He said, "Whatever
you wish, and if you increase then it is better." I said,
"Then two thirds?" He said, "Whatever you wish, and if you
increase then it is better." I said, "Shall I make all of my
supplication for you?" He said, "Then all of your concerns
would be taken care of, and your sins forgiven." Declared
hasan by Shaikh al-Albaanee, see Saheehut-Tirmidhee, no.
And concerning the two blowings of the Horn see the
hadeeth of Aboo Hurairah, al-Bukhaaree, transl. 6/429, no.
Quloob Yawmaidhin Waajifah
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, The heart of His
creation on that day will be terrified due to the severe and terrifying
occurrence." Alee, Ibn Abbaas said, "Meaning:
fearful, terrified." Qataadah said, "Terrified because of what
they see that Day."
- At-Tabaree says, "The gaze of those people will be humbled/lowered
due to the disasters and grief, and sorrow, due to fear and terror of what
has come upon them, and the horrors of that day."
- Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Zayd (ibn Aslam) said, "Humbled due to the
humiliation that has come upon them." Qataadah said,
- Ash-Sahwkaanee mentions, "Ataa said, Meaning:
the sight of those who died upon other than Islaam. And this is shown
by the context which refers to the deniers of the Resurrection."
- As-Sadee said, "Meaning: humbled and humiliated. Their
hearts are possessed by fear and preoccupied by distress. They are overcome
by regret and seized by grief."
Yaqooloona Ainna la-Mardoodoona fil-Haafirah
Hafara: he dug or cleard it (e.g., the earth or a
Haafirah: original state, beginning
- At-Tabaree said, "These mushriks of Quraysh who denied the
Resurrection, when it is said to them that they will be raised up after
death, say, Are we to be returned to our original state which we were
upon before dying and be alive again as we were before we perished and
died. And it is from their saying, Rajaa fulaan
alaa haarifatihi, when a person returned from whence he
Abbaas said, "(Al-Haafirah said), Life."
Qataadah said, "I.e., brought back, created anew."
Al-Haafirah means the earth in which their graves (hufrah) are
dug. Mujaahid said, "Al-Haafirah: The earth, we are to be
raised up on it and created anew, and resurrected."
(iii) Ibn Zayd
(Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam), "Al-Haafirah: The
Fire. He said, How many names it has. It is: An-Naar,
al-Jaheem, Saqar, Jahannam, al-Haawiyah, al-Haaqirah, Ladhaa and
- As-Sadee said, "They say - i.e., those in this world who
deny the Resurrection, out of mockery and denial of the Resurrection, out of
mockery and denial of the Resurrection - Shall be returned back after
death to our original form?! This is a question by which is meant a
denial and in the form of utmost amazement deeming it to be
Aidhaa Kunnaa Idhaaman-Nakhirah
At-Tabaree said, "Nakhirah: worn out/decayed.
Mujaahid said, Crumbled (bones). Qataadah said, Worn out,
Ash-Shawkaanee said, "That is: decayed and crumbled
so this is an extra emphasis upon their denial of the
Resurrection, meaning, Shall we after we have become crumbled bones, then
be brought back and resurrected, when that is the furthest thing my
Qaaloo tilka idhan Karratan Khaasirah
At-Tabaree said, "He, the Majestic, says about the saying
of the deniers of the Resurrection, they say, That
meaning this resurrection to life after death,
would be a return
that would be a loss. Qataadah said, Meaning: a return that would
be a loss. Ibn Zaid (ibn Aslam) said, And what loss can be greater
than it. They are returned to life and then go to the Fire. So it is an evil
Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning: if we were returned after
death, then we would be losers due to what we would suffer after
Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning: a return involving loss
which would come upon its people. The meaning of it is that they said, If
we were to be brought back after death we would certainly be losers due to that
which Muhammad says we would suffer. And it is said that, Khasirah, means
false, i.e., it is something that will not be, this was said by
al-Hasan and others. Ar-Rabee ibn Anas said, It would be a loss
doe those who denied it. Qataadah and Muhammad ibn Kab said,
Meaning: if we were brought back after death we will be in loss due to
the Fire, and they said this because they had been promised the
Fainnamaa Hiyaa Zajratun Waahidah
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says,It is just a
single blast, and the Horn is blown once, and that is the
Zajarah. Mujaahid said, A blast. Ibn Zayd said,
A blast upon the horn (as-Soor),"
- Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning: the final blast
- Ibn Katheer siad, "So it will just be a command from Allaah, which
will not be repeated or further emphasised, and the people will be standing
and looking on. It is that Allaah, the Most High, will order Israafeel who
will blow the Horn for the Resurrection, and that earlier and later people
will be standing up before the Lord, the Mighty and Majestic."
Faidhaa hum Bis-Saahirah
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, Then those who
denied the Resurrection, who found it incredible that Allaah would bring
them to life after their death, and they denied it, then they would be,
Bis-Saahirah, meaning upon the face of the earth, and
the Arabs call desert ground and the face of the earth Saahirah.
Ibn Abbaas said, Upon the earth.
Ikrimah said, Then they are upon the face of the earth.
Mujaahid said, A flat place. Qataadah said, Then they will
be upon the earth, after being within it."
Hal ataaka hadeethu Moosaa Idh Naadaahu
Rabbuhoo Bil-waadil-Muqaddasi Tuwaa
At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says to His Prophet
Muhammad, sallallaahu alaihi wa salaam, Has there come to
you, O Muhamad, the news of Moosaa ibn Imraan, and have you heard the
news of what occurred when his Lord called him in the purified and blessed
And the people of explanation differ about His saying,
Tuwaa. So some say it is the name of a valley. Mujaahid
said, Tuwaa is the name of the valley.
Ibn Katheer said, "He, the Most High, informs His
Messenger Muhammad. sallallaahu alaihi wa salaam, about His slave
and His Messenger Moosaa, alaihis-salaam, that he sent him as a
Messenger to the Pharoah and Allaah asked him with miracles, yet despite this he
(i.e., Pharoah) continued in his unbelief and transgression, until Allaah, with
full power and full might, seized and punished him, and the end of those who
oppose you and deny what you come with will be likewise.
"Hal ataaka hadeethu Moosaa," meaning,
Have you heard of his news? "Idh naadaa rabbahu
" meaning, He spoke to him, calling out.
" meaning Purified.
"Tuwaa," and that is the name of the valley in the correct
saying, as has preceded in Soorah Taa Haa (aayahs 9 onwards).
As-Sadee said, "Hal ataaka hadeethu
Moosaa, this is a question about a very great matter, which had
certainly occurred. Meaning, Has the news reached you of when his Lord
called him in the purified valley of Tuwaa, which is the place where
Allaah spoke to him, and blessed him with Messengership and sent him with
Revelation, and chose him."
Ash-Shawkaanee said, "The sentence, Hal ataaka
hadeethu Moosaa, comes as a consolation for Allaahs Messenger,
sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam, for the denail of his people and
that the same will befall those who were before them and were stronger than
Idhhab ilaa Firawna innhu Taghaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, "Moosaa wsa called
to by his Lord, Go to Pharoah, he has transgressed and gone beyond
limits in his transgression and haughty rejection of his Lord."
- As-Sadee said, "I.e., and so forbid him from his transgression, his
shrik and his disobedience, with a mild word, and a gentle form of
Faqul-Hallaka ilaa an-Tazakkaa
At-Tabaree said, "He says, And say to him,
Would you purify yourself from the pollution of shirk, and believe
in your Lord? Ibn Zayd said, "Would you accept Islaam."
He said, "And at-Tazakkee (purification of onesself) wherever it
occurs in the Quraan means Islaam." He then recited Taa Haa (20),
aayah: 76, Abasa (80), aayah 3 and 7."
Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, Say to him,
Would you accept to follow a way and a path through which you will become
purified, and accept Islaam and be obedient."
As-Sadee said, "Meaning, Would you accept a
praiseworthy attribute, a fine quality, which people of wisdom strive to attain
and that is that you purify yourself from the pollution of kufr and
transgression, and turn to eemaan and righteous action."
Ibn al-Qayyim said in At-Tibyaan fee Aqsaamil-Quraan
(pp. 132-141), "In this address there are a number of examples of
gentleness in address and mildness in speech:
Firstly: The speech was presented in the form of an offer, and
not given in the form of a command and a binding demand. It is like the saying
of Ibraaheem to his noble guests, "Will you not eat?" (Soorah
adh-Dhaariyaat, 17) and he did not say, "Eat!"
Secondly: His saying, "Ilaa an-Tazakkaa" that
you should purify yourself, and it means: growth, purification, blessing and
increase. So he presented to him a matter which every person with intellect
would accept, and no one except an ignorant fool would reject this.
Thirdly: His saying, "Tazakkaa" that
you should purify yourself, and he did not say, "I will
purify you." So he attributed the purification to him and this is the way
in which the sovereigns are addressed.
Fourthly: His saying, "Wa Ahdiyaka" meaning,
"I should be a guide for you and one in front of you to show you the
way." So he attributed the state of guiding to himself and the purification
to the one he was speaking to you. Meaning, "I will be a guide showing you
the way so that you can purify yourself." So it is just as you would say to
a man, "Would you like that I should show you a treasure, so you may take
from it what you wish?" And this is better than saying, "I will give
Fifthly: His saying, "Ilaa rabbikaa" "To
your Lord," since this necessitates acceptance of what it indicates,
which is that he calls him and connects him to his Lord, and his
Originator and his Creator Who brought him into existence, and Who bestowed His
blessings upon him, as an unborn foetus, and as a child, and as a grown man, and
He granted kingship to him. So it is a type of address containing an appeal and
an imperative requirement. Just as you would say to one who abandoned obedience
to his master, "Will you not obey your master and your owner?" And as
you would say to a boy, "Will you not obey your father who has brought you
Sixthly: His saying, "Fa-takhsaa" so that you
should fear, i.e., if I guide you to Him, and you come to know Him then
you will fear Him, since one who knows Allaah will fear Him. But one who does
not know Him will not fear Him. So fear of Him, the Most High, accompanies
knwoedge of Him, and a persons fear of Him will be in accordance with the degree
of knowledge of Him.
Seventhly: That in his saying, "Hal-laka"
" (lit., "Is it for you
contains a subtle point of benefit, which is: that the meaning is do you have a
need in that, and it is known that every person with intellect would hasten to
accept that since the one who calls to something will call to his own need and
benefit, not to the benefit of the one he is calling. So it is as if he were
saying, "It is you that has this need and you are the one who is to be
purified, and I will be a guide for you and lead you to the greatest of all
things beneficial for you. But he responded to this with kufr, obstinate
rejection and the claim that he was the Lord of all creation
Wa-Ahdiyaka Ilaa Rabbika fa-Takhsha
At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says to His Prophet
Moosaa, Say to Pharoah, Would you like that I should direct you to
that which will cause your Lord to be pleased with you. That being the true
religion, so that you may fear, meaning you may due to fear of His punishment
perform the obligatory duties He made binding upon you and avoid whatever sins
He has forbidden you from."
Al-Bghawee said, "Meaning, I call you to the
worship of your Lord and to singling Him out with tawheed, and that you
should fear His punishment."
Ibn Katheer said, "Fa-takhshaa" meaning,
So that your heart should become humble to Him, and obedient and fearful
after having been hard and filthy and far removed from good."
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says that Moosaa showed
Pharoah the greatest sign, meaning the greatest proof that he was a
Messenger of Allaah, sent by Him to him. This sign was the hand of Moosaa,
which when he put it out (shone) brightly for those who saw it. And his
staff which visibly turned into his snake. Mujaahid said "His staff and
his hand." Qataadah said, "His staff and his hand."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning Moosaa showed him, along with his true
call a strong evidence and clear proof, showing the truth of what he brought
- At-Tabaree said, "So Pharaoh denied by rejecting the miraculous
signs which Moosaa brought to him, and he disobeyed him with regard to the
command for him, for him to obey and fear his Lord."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, so he denied the truth and contradicted
the order for him to be obedient. So his heart disbelieved and did not
comply with Moosaa, inwardly or outwardly. Then his knowledge that what
Moosaa came with was the truth did not mean that he had eemaan in it,
since knowledge recognition is knowledge of the heart,
whereas eemaan is action and submission and compliance to the
Thumma Adbara Yas-aa
- At-Tabaree said, "Then he turned away from the obedience to his
Lord that Moosaa called him to, and away from fearing him and worshipping
him alone and he strove in doing actions of disobedience to Allaah,
which would bring His Anger upon him. Mujaahid said, He acted
- Al-Baghawee said, "He turned away from eemaan and performed
corruption upon the earth."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, he opposed the truth with falsehood,
which was that he gathered the sorcerers to counter the clear miracles that
Moosaa, alaihis-salaam, came with."
- Sadee said, "Meaning, he strove hard in opposing and
fighting the truth."
Fa-hashara Fa naadaa
- At-Tabaree said, "So he gathered his people and his followers and
called to them, saying, "I am you Lord, the Most High, such that every
lord is lesser than meand the stupid fool lied. Ibn Zaid
said, He shouted out and gathered his people and called them. So when
they gathered, he said, I am your Lord, the Most High. So
Allaah took him and punished him for the first and latter of his
Fa-Qaalaa Ana Rabbukumul-Alaa
- At-Tabaree said, "So he gathered his people and his followers and
called out to them, saying, I am the Lord, such that every lord is
lesser than me,and the stupid fool lied."
Fa-Akhadhullaahu Nakaalal-Aakhirati wal-Oolaa
- At-Tabaree said, "Fa-akhadhahullaahu (means), So Allaah
punished him. Nakaalal-Aakhirati wal-Oolaa (means), He punished him
because of the last of his two sayings, which was his saying that, I
am your Highest Lord. And the first of his sayings, I know
of no one else for you to worship besides me.
this from Mujaahid and others and that the two sayings were separated by
others said, rather what is meant by that is the
punishment of this world and the hereafter, said by Hasan and Qataadah.
- Al-Baghawee said, "Al-Hasan and Qataadah said, Allaah gave
him an exemplary punishment in this world and the hereafter, meaning,
drowning in this world and a fire in the hereafter. And Mujaahid and a group
of the people of tafseer
said, "What is meant by the latter and
the earlier is the two sayings of Pharaoh."
- Ibn Katheer said, "(Meaning), Allaah chastised him with a
punishment that made an example and a lesson of him, for the like of him
from the transgressors in the world
and this is what is cvorrect
with regard to what is meant in the aayah,
Nakaalal-aakhirati wal-Oolaa that it means, in the
world and the Hereafter. And it is said that what is meant is his two
sayings, the first and the last; and it is said, his kufr and his
disobedience. And what is correct about which there is no doubt is the
Inna fee Dhaalika La-Ibratan Li-Mayyakhshaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, that in the punishment
that Allaah brought to Pharaoh in this world, and His punishing him with the
punishment of the first and the last there is an admonition and a
lesson for anyone who fears Allaah and fears His punishment.."
- As-Sadee said, "Since the one who fears Allaah, he is the
one who benefits from the signs and the lessons, then he knows that whoever
is haughty and disobendent, and challenges the Highest Sovereign, will be
punished by Him in this world and the Hereafter. As for the one whose heart
is such that fear of Allaah has departed from it, then even if every sign
came to him, he would not believe it."
A-Antum Ashaddu Khalqan Amis-Samaa Banaahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, said to those deniers of the
Resurrection from Quraysh, who said, A-idhahh kunna
idhaaman nakhirah, Qaaloo, tilka idhjan karratun khaasirah.
(11-12), Are you, O People, harder to create, or the heavens which
your Lord created? So for Him who built the heavens and made that a ceiling
for you, then it is easy for Him to create you and create the like of you.
And to give you life after your death, and creating you after your death is
not harder than the creating of the heavens. Banaahaa: He raised it
up, and so made it a ceiling for the earth."
- Al-Baghawee said, "Then he addressed the deniers of the
Resurrection, saying, A-antum ashaddu khalqan amis-Samaa,
meaning, Is creating you after death harder in your view and in
your estimation or (creating) the heavens? and they are both the same
in the power and ability of Allaah."
- Ash-Shawkaanee said, "And the address was to the unbelievers of
Makkah, and what is meant by it is a rebuke and censure of them, since the
one who is able to create the heavens which are tremendous in size, and
contain amazing creations, and wonderful proofs of His power which
clearly show those who see them: who can he be unable to bring those bodies
which He has caused to die back to life, when it was He who created them in
the first place?"
Rafaa Samkahaa fa-Sawwaahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says He made the Heavens
evenly, such that one part does not stand out higher than the rest, not any
part lower than the rest but it is even in its elevation and its
expansion. Qataadah said, He raised it up and made it even.
Mujaahid said, He raised it up, without any pillar."
- Al-Baghawee said, "Fa-Sawwaahaa: means without any gaps or
- Ibn Katheer said, "That is, He made it high, long lasting,
even and adorned with stars in the dark night."
Wa Aghtashaa Lailahaa wa Akhraja Duhaahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "Wa aghtashaa lailahaa: He, the Most High,
says that He made the night of the heavens dark. So He attributed the night
to the heavens since the night comes with the setting of the sun, and its
setting and rising takes place in the heavens so it is attributed to
them. Ibn Abbaas said, He made it dark, (i.e.,
Aghtashaa) = (Adh-lamaa). And Mujaahid said the same.
Qataadah, Ibn Zaid, Ad-Dahhaak and Ikrimah
Wa Akhraja Duhaahaa: He says He brought out its light,
meaning, He manifested its day and gave light to it. And Mujaahid sais,
He gave light to it, and Qataadah said, He caused its light
- Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning, He manifested its bright day with
the light of the sun, and He referred to the day as the duhaa
(forenoon), since that is the most excellent and the best of its
Wal-Arda Bada dhaalika Dahaahaa
- At-Tabaree quotes to sayings. (i) That it means that
Allaah created the earth, then created the heavens, then spread out whatever
is upon the earth. (ii)
That it means that Allaah created
the earth and spread out whatever is upon it, then created the heavens.
Then at-Tabaree preferred the first saying, as did Ibn Katheer,
ash-Shawkaanee and as-Sadee. He says, "Since what is well-known is
that bada (after) is the opposite in meaning to qabl
(before)." Ibn Abbaas said, "That He mentioned that He
created the earth before the heavens, then mentioned the heavens before the
earth and that is because Allaah created the earth along with its
provisions, but did not spread that out, before the heavens. Then He ascended
over the Heavens and made them seven heavens. He then spread out the earth over
that." Qataadah and Sufyaam both said regarding Dahaahaa, "He
spread it out." Ibn Zaid said, "He planted and split it."
- Ibn Katheer said, "He, the Most High, explained it with His saying
(i.e., aayah 31) (He produced its water and plants), and it has
preceded in Soorah Haa Meem as-Sajdah that the earth was created
before the creation of the heavens. However, it was spread out after the
creation of the heavens, meaning that He brought out of it the provision
that was within it. This is what Ibn Abbaas and others meant, and was
the preferred view of Ibn Jareer. And Ibn Abee Haatim narrated
Saeed ibn Jubayr, from Ibn Abbaas (regarding dahaahaa,
that he said), "Its spreading (dahy) is that He brought out of
it its water and plants, and split rivers from it, and put mountains, sands,
paths and chains of hills upon it."
- As-Sadee said, "Wal-Ardaa bada dhaalika: i.e.,
after the creation of the heavens dahaahaa: He placed in it those
things of benefit."
Akhraja minhaa Maaahaa wa Marahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He caused rivers to flow in
it and caused its plants to grow."
- Ibn Katheer (see previous aayah )
- Ash-Sahwkaanee said, "Meaning, He caused rivers, oceans and springs
to flow upon the earth. Wa maraahaa, i.e., the plants which
(animals) graze upon, and this sentence is either an explanation of
dahaahaa (spreading out), since it cannot be suitable for habitation
by merely being spread out. Rather, that which is necessary for life, from
food and drink must also be provided, or it is an explanation of its
- At-Tabaree said, "He says, And He fixed the mountains firmly
upon it. Qataadah, Meaning, He firmly fixed them so that it should
not shake with the people upon it."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, He caused them to be settled,
firmly fixed and sound in their places, and He is the All-Wise, the
All-Knowing, the One Most Kind and merciful to His creation."
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, means that He created these
things, and brought out from the earth water and pasture, as a benefit, and
something to enjoy for a certain time period."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, He laid out the earth, caused
its spring to gush out, brought out its hidden treasures, caused its rivers
to flow, brought out its crops, trees and fruits, and firmly fixed its
mountains, so that they with the people upon it should stable. He did all of
this for it to be of benefit to His creation and for the beasts which they
need for food and to ride upon. This is for the length of time which they
have need of this in this world, until the time period is completed and come
to an end."
Taammah: lang. A great calamity
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, So when that
event comes which is kmore terrible than all other events, such that it
submerges everything else with its terrors. And it is said that it is
one of the names of the Day of Resurrection. Alee, Ibn Abbaas
said, It is from the names of the Day of Resurrection. Allaah has
mentioned it as being something very great and has warned His servants about
- Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning, When the second blast occurs, at
which the Resurrection will take place. And the Day of Resurrection is
called Taammah because it drowns out all othere terrors and overcomes
them. And at-Taammah with the Arabs means a disaster that
cannot be survived."
Yawma Yatadhakarul-Insaana Maa Saaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He says, When the Overwhelming Calamity
comes about, then on that day mankind will remember the good and the evil
deeds that they did in this world. And that is his striving
- Al-Baghawee said, "Maa saaa: the good and the evil
that he did in this world."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, at that time the son of Aadam will
remember all of his deeds, the good and the evil."
- As-Sadee said, "So who was a doer of good will receive that
which is good, and whoever was a doer of evil can blame no one but
Wa Burrazatil-Jaheemu limay-Yaraa
- At-Tabaree said, "And Hell-fire will be made manifest, and it is
Allaahs Fire, for those who are looking onto see."
- Al-Baghawee said, "Muqaatil said, The cover will be removed
from it, so that the creation will be looking at it."
- Ash-Shawkaanee said, "It will be manifested such that it is not
hidden from anyone."
Fa-ammaa man Taghaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says, So as for he who
insolently rejects his Lord, disobeys Him and haughtily refuses to worship
Him. Mujaahid said, Taghaa: disobeys Him."
- Al-Baghawee said, "(Transgresses) with his Unbelief."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, he rebels and is insolent."
- Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning, he who transgresses with kufr
- As-Sadee said, "Meaning, he who goes beyond the limits by
insolently committing the major sins, and by not restricting himself to the
limits laid down by Allaah."
- At-Tabaree said, "And prefers the enjoyment of this world to then
honour of the Hereafter and whatever Allaah has prepared in it for His
Awliyaa (those who love and obey Him). But he works and strives for
this world and abandons working for the Hereafter."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, he gives precedence to it."
- As-Sadee said, "(Preferring it) over the Hereafter. So he
strives for it, and his time is occupied with it and the desires that are
from it, and he forgets the Hereafter and action for it."
At-Tabaree said, "He says, So Allaahs Fire
which is called al-Jaheem (the Blazing Fire) is his abode and dwelling
place and the place where he will end up on the Day of Resurrection"
Wa-ammaa man khaafa Maqaama Rabbihee Wa-Nannafsa anil-Hawaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He says, As for he who fears his
Lords questioning him when he stands before Him on the Day of
Resurrection, so therefore he has taqwaa for Him by doing whatever He
has made obligatory and avoiding sinning against Him. And he prevents his
soul from desires, meaning, and he prevents his soul from whatever it
desires that Allaah hates and is not pleasing to Him. So He prevents it from
that and goes against his desires in favour of what his Lord has commanded
- Al-Baghawee said, "From the forbidden things which it desires.
Muqaatil said, It is the man who thinks of committing a sin but he
remembers his having to stand to give account, so he abandins
- At-Tabaree said, "He says, Then Paradise is his dwelling
place and abode on the Day of Resurrection."
- As-Sadee said, "Paradise, which includes everything that is
good, every delight and every pleasure, (is the abode) for the one who has
this as his characteristic."
Yasaloonaka anis-Saaati, Ayyaana
- At-Tabaree said, "Allaah, the Most High, says to His Prophet
Muhammad, sallallaahu alaihi wa salaam, Those deniers
of the Resurrection ask you, O Muhammad, about the Last Hour, when the dead
will be raised from their graves, (they ask), What is the tie of its
establishment and appearance?"
- As-Sadee said, "Meaning, the obstinate rejectors of the
Resurrection ask you, When will the Last Hour come about? So
Allaah answered them with His saying:
Fee ma Anta min Dhikraahaa
Fee ma Anta min Dhikraahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "Allaah says to His Prophet, What have you
to do with the Last Hour and seeking to know about that matter? And
it is mentioned that Allaahs Messenger, sallallaahu alaihi
wa salaam, used to frequently mention the Last Hour, until this
aayah was sent down.
Yaqoob ibn Ibraaheem narrated to me saying: Sufyaan ibn
Uyaynah narrated to us: from az-Zuhree: from Urwah: from
Aaishah who said, "The Prophet, sallallaahu alaihi
wa sallaam, did not cease asking about the matter of the Last Hour, until
there was sent down:
Fee ma Anta min Dhikraahaa, Ilaa Rabbika Muntahaahaa
Mujaahid said regarding, Fee ma Anta min
Dhikraahaa, "The Last Hour."
- Al-Baghawee said, "You have no share of the knowledge and
mention of that. Meaning, You do not know it.
- Ash-Shawkaanee said, "Meaning, you have no share of the knowledge
and mention of that, rather it is known only to Allaah, the One free from
all imperfections. And this is a rebuttal and rejection of the question of
the mushriks about that, meaning, What share of that is there
for you so that they should ask you about it when you do not know
- As-Sadee said, "Meaning, what benefit would there be for you
or them for it to be mentioned, and for you to know the time of its coming?
So there is no benefit in that. Therefore, since the peoples knowing when
the Last Hour is contains no benefit for them in their Religion or their
worldly life. Rather the benefit is in its being hidden from them. So that
is kept hidden from all of the creation, and He alone has knowledge of
Ilaa Rabbika Muntahaahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He says, Knowledge of it belongs to Him,
that is knowledge of the Last Hour is for Him, no one but Him knows the time
of its establishment."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, knowledge of it is not for you or for
anyone in the creation, rather its knowledge is with Allaah, the Mighty and
Majestic. So He alone knows its specific time. Therefore when Jibreel asked
Allaahs Messenger, sallallaahu alaihi wa salaam, about
the time of the Last Hour he replied, "The one who is asked about it
does not know any better than the one asking."
Innamaa Anta Mundhiru May-Yakhshaahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Most High, says to Muhammad, You
are juts My Messenger sent to warn of the Last Hour (to warn) those
who fear Allaahs punishment on that day for their sins. But you are
not given the task of knowing the time for its establishment. So leave that
which you have not been given as a task, and act upon that which you have
been commanded with, as regards warning those you have been ordered to
- Al-Baghawee said, "Meaning, Your warning will only benefit those
who fear it."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, I have only sent you to alert and warn
the people about Allaahs punishment. So whoever fears Allaah, and
fears his having to stand in front of Him and what He has threatened, then
such a one will follow you and so be successful and succeed. But loss and
disaster will be for those who deny and oppose you,
- Ash-Shawkaanee said, "You are to warn those who fear establishment
of the Last Hour. That is you duty, and it is not a duty upon you that you
should inform of the time of the establishment of the Last Hour and so on,
from those things the knowledge of which Allaah has kept to Himself."
And He particularises the mention of the warning to those who fear since
they are the ones who benefit from the warning. Even though he was a warner
to every Muslim and kaafir."
- As-Sadee said, "Meaning, your warning will benefit those who
fear the coming of the Last Hour, and who fear standing in front of Allaah.
So they are the ones who are not interested except in preparing for it and
in action for it. As for those who do not believe in it, then they are not
to be taken notice of, nor of their useless questions. Since they are
questions based upon denial and obstinate rejection. So when this is the
case, answering that would be frivolity, and the Most Just of all judges is
far removed from that."
Ka-annahum Yawma Yarawnahaa Lam Yalbithoo Illaa Ashiyyatan Aw Duhaahaa
- At-Tabaree said, "He, the Majestic, says, It will be when
those who reject the Last Hour, see the Hour established, along with its
great terrors, it will be as if they had not remained in the world except
for an afternoon, or the morning of that afternoon/evening
(duhaa) means the start of the day-time, and the
(ashiyy) means the end of the day-time. So likewise His
saying, Illaa ashiyyatan aw duhaahaa, means, the end of a day
and its first part. Qataadah said, This will be how the people view
the time of the world when they see the Hereafter."
- Al-Baghawee said, "Kaannahum: (i.e., it will be as if
they) meaning the disbelievers of Quraysh, when they see the Day of
Resurrection have not remained in the world, and it is said: in their
graves, Illaa ashiyyatan aw duhaahaa."
- Ibn Katheer said, "Meaning, when they arise from their graves for
the gathering, they will consider that their life-time in the world had been
very little, as if it had been the afternoon/evening of a day or its